Vaejovis sprousei Sissom 1990
Vaejovis sprousei Sissom, 1990b: 48, 51-53, fig. 3A-G; Kovarík, 1998: 148; Beutelspacher, 2000: 110, 143, 147, 154, map 90; Sissom, 2000: 543; ►González Santillán & Sissom, 2004: 9-11, figs. 1-5; Jarvis et al. 2005: 207, 210..
TYPE(s): Vaejovis sprousei Sissom - Holotype female taken from Conrado Castillo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, on 19 April 1981 (Peter Sprouse); deposited in AMNH.
Vaejovis sprousei Sissom, 1990b:
González Santillán & Sissom, 2004:
Description of Male.—Coloration. Carapace and tergites orange brown with underlying dusky markings. Metasomal segment I-V orangish brown. Telson orange, aculeus dark reddish brown. Cheliceral manus and teeth yellow. Pedipalp femur orange, patella orange brown. Chela palm orange brown. Fingers orange brown basally, yellowish distally. Keels of pedipalps brownish. Metasoma dark brown. Legs yellowish with dusky markings.
Prosoma. Carapace length greater than posterior width. Median ocular prominence slightly raised above carapacial surface. Anterior margin obtusely emarginate; median notch rounded. Entire carapacial surface finely granular interspersed with larger granules.
Mesosoma. Median carina obsolete on I-III; weak, smooth on IV-VI. Tergite VII with median carinae present on anterior one-third, weak, smooth; lateral carinae strong, granulose. Pectinal teeth numbering 18-18. Sternites III-VI smooth, sparsely setose. Sternite VII with pair of moderate, granular lateral carinae.
Metasoma. Segment I 0.91 times as long as wide; III 1.30 times longer than wide; V 2.88 times longer than wide. Segments I-IV: Dorsolateral carinae on I-IV strong serrate; distalmost denticle enlarged, spinoid on I-IV. Lateral supramedian carinae on I-IV strong serrate; distalmost denticle enlarged spinoid on I-III and on IV flared. Lateral inframedian carinae on I strong, complete, serrate; on II present on posterior half, strong, serrate; on III present on posterior one-third, moderate, serrate; on IV absent. Ventrolateral carinae on I-IV strong, serrate. Ventral submedian carinae on I-IV strong, serrate. Dorsal and lateral intercarinal spaces with scattered coarse granules. Segment V: Dorsolateral carinae moderate, serrate to granulate. Lateromedian carinae moderate, present on anterior two-thirds, irregularly crenulate. Ventrolateral and ventromedian carinae strong, serrate. Dorsal and lateral surfaces with scattered coarse granules. Metasomal I-IV carinal setation: dorsolaterals, 0:1:1:2; lateral supramedians, 0:0:1:2; lateral inframedians, 1:1:1:1; ventrolaterals, 2:3:3:3; ventral submedians, 3:3:3:3; ventromedian intercarinal spaces of segments II-IV without accessory seta. Setation of metasomal segment V: dorsolaterals, 2; laterals 3; ventrolaterals, 6.
Telson. Dorsal surface of vesicle with a broad, elongate whitish patch (gland?); ventral surface with seven pairs very fine, long setae.
Hemispermatophore (Figs. 1-2). General appearance short and broad; distal lamina with a distal crest on dorsal surface and a single, blunt hook-like structure near the base. Capsular area with simple invaginated sperm duct floor, without conspicuous lobes or processes. Sperm duct flanked along distal edge by distinct denticle-like structures.
Pedipalps. Femur length/width ratio 3.43. Femur tetracarinate: Dorsointernal, dorsovexternal, and ventrointernal carinae strong, granulose; ventroexternal carina strong, composed of large, irregularly spaced, sharp granules. Internal face with 7-9 larger, pointed granules; ventral face with coarse granulation on proximal portion; dorsal face with sparse fine granulation. Orthobothriotaxia C. Patella tetracarinate. All carinae strong, granulose. Internal face with moderate basal tubercle and 7-9 large, subconical granules arranged in longitudinal row. External, dorsal and ventral faces finely granular. Orthobothriotaxia C.
Chela (Figs. 3-4). Dorsal marginal, dorsal secondary, digital, external secondary, ventroexternal, ventromedian and ventrointernal carina weak and smooth. Dorsointernal carina slightly crenulate. Dentate margin of fixed finger with primary row divided into six subrows by five enlarged granules; six inner accessory granules. Dentate margin of movable finger with primary row divided into six subrows by five enlarged granules; apical subrow consisting of a single granule; seven inner accessory granules, of which all but the basalmost and distalmost are paired with a larger granule in the primary denticle row. Fingers without distinct scalloping. Chela length/width ratio 3.97; fixed finger length/carapace length ratio 0.77. Orthobothriotaxia C.
Legs. Ventromedian spinule row of telotarsus flanked distally by two pairs of larger spinules (Fig. 5).
Measurements (mm): Total L, 31.80; carapace L,4.05; mesosoma L, 8.95; metasoma L, 14.45; telson L, 4.35. Metasomal segments: I L/W, 1.95/2.15; II L/W,2.25/1.90; III L/W, 2.40/1.85; IV L/W, 3.10/1.75; V L/W, 4.75/1.65. Telson: vesicle L/W/D, 3.00/1.40/1.25; aculeus L, 1.35. Pedipalps: femur L/W, 3.60/1.05; patella L/W, 3.95/1.30; chela L/W/D, 6.15/1.55/1.80; fixed finger L, 3.10; movable finger L, 3.70; palm (underhand) L, 2.80.
Sissom and Hendrickson 2005:39,40,41 - Key to the Vaejovid Scorpion Species of Northeastern México - Dorsolateral carinae of metasoma (at least on segments I–III) with an enlarged terminal denticle; legs I–III with irregular setation (except in V. globosus, which has setal combs, – but has the enlarged terminal denticle on the metasoma); Trichobothria ib and it situated at base of chela fixed finger; Pectinal tooth counts greater than 14 in males, greater than 11 in females; pedipalp chela with ventral face rounded, with or without ventromedian carina; chela movable finger length/chela palm width ratio greater than 1.8; adults variable in size and color; Cheliceral movable finger with ventral margin smooth; Pedipalp patella with 2 esb trichobothria; Ventral submedian carinae present (usually weak on I–II, stronger on III–IV); metasoma with paired setae (on segments I–IV, usually 3–6 pairs) and no more than one or two setae in the intercarinal spaces; pectinal tooth counts less than 20 in males, less than 18 in females; Body color light yellow brown to brown (if brown, with distinct mottling); adult body length less than 35 mm in both sexes; Pectinal tooth counts 14–18 in females, 17–18 in males; pedipalp chela length/width greater than 4.0; larger scorpions, both adult males and females over 27 mm in length; Coloration brown to reddish brown, with distinct dusky markings.... Vaejovis sprousei
distribution: NORTH AMERICA. México (Nuevo León, Tamaulipas). Known from the southern portions of Nuevo León and adjacent Tamaulipas, Mexico
Published Records: Nuevo León: Cueva del Escorpión, Ejido Tinajas (UTM 446872 2647939 1515 NAD27), 1 January 1998 (J. Kreica), 1 male (AMNH); 7.8 mi N La Ascensión, 20 July 1979 (E. A. Liner), 1 juv. (FSCA); Cerro Potosí, 1.4 mi W 14 de Marzo, 25 July 1973 (Liner, Johnson), 1 female (FSCA); Cueva del Mono, 3 km E Garza, 8 km NW Dulces Nombres, 12 October 1987 (S. Lasko), 1 female (TMM). Tamaulipas: 24 km SW Ciudad Victoria, 26 July 2002 (Prendini, González Santillán, Francke), 1 female (UNAM, preserved in 95% ethanol).
notes:González Santillán & Sissom, 2004: Sissom (1990) redescribed Vaejovis dugesi Pocock, 1902 and described two related species from northeastern Mexico (V. sprousei) and the Chisos Mountains in Big Bend National Park, Texas (V. chisos). All three species, currently assigned to the Vaejovis mexicanus group (Sissom, 1990, 2000), are uncommon in museum collections. Vaejovis dugesi and V. chisos were represented only by females, but in the case of V. sprousei a subadult male was also available. A few new specimens of V. sprousei have accumulated since the original description, including the first adult male, which is herein described. Two of the new records are from caves, the first such records for this species. Group assignment of these three species is becoming questionable. As new species have accumulated, it is increasingly apparent that the mexicanus group of Vaejovis is a heterogeneous assemblage that may be divisible into several subgroups. Interspecific variation in hemispermatophores is noteworthy (Sissom 1990, 1991) and is expected to contribute to a refinement of our knowledge of phylogenetic relationships within and between the groups currently assigned to the genus Vaejovis. Therefore, descriptions of males and hemispermatophores of all taxa are highly desirable. Hemispermatophore terminology follows that of Lamoral (1979) and the identification of the sperm duct floor is from Stockwell (1989:130). The convex surface, which would be exposed on the outside when the two hemispermatophores are joined to form the spermatophore, is termed the dorsal side. The concave (medial) surface is referred to as the ventral side. Orthobothriotaxia designation follows Vachon (1974).
In general appearance, the hemispermatophore of V. sprousei is similar to those of certain other mexicanus group species for which the hemispermatophore is known (Sissom 1989). Like Vaejovis monticola, the hemispermatophore is robust. A distal crest on the distal lamina is also known in V. rossmani and V. monticola. As is typical of the group, the capsule of the ventral surface is simple, with the most conspicuous structure being the invaginated floor of the sperm duct. The denticle-like structures distal to the sperm duct invagination are thus far unique to V. sprousei. At the distal end of the dorsal trough margin is a hooklike structure, but in the case of V. sprousei, there is only a single, blunt hook (instead of a double hook, which is present in some species).