Uroctonites giulianii Williams and Savary 1991
Uroctonites giulianii Williams & Savary, 1991: 278-281, 282, 284, fig. 1, 3, 4, 11, 13, 15-19; Kovarík, 1998: 145; Sissom, 2000:527.
TYPE(s): Uroctonites giulianii Williams & Savary - Holotype, female. Data: USA. CALIFORNIA. INYO Co.: White Mountains, Inyo National Forest, Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest, 1.1 km (0.7 mi) S of Schulman Grove [37.377° N, -118.184° W, est.], el. 3080 m, 4 Sep 1988, S. C. Williams, V. F. Lee. Deposited in the California Academy of Sciences (CAS Type No. 16436).
Uroctonites giulianii Williams & Savary, 1991: 278-281, 282, 284, fig. 1, 3, 4, 11, 13, 15-19.
Description. -Female (Holotype). Coloration: dorsum of carapace, metasoma, and pedipalps moderate burnt umber, carapace with slight brown marbling, mesosoma slightly lighter, keels ofpedipalps and metasoma contrastingly darker brown than background cuticle; walking legs slightly paler than mesosoma, more yellow; vesicle slightly yellow; pedipalp palms amber brown, keels and fingers contrastingly darker brown; venter white-yellow, similar to legs; pectines slightly white. Prosoma: anterior caparace margin deeply bilobed, with three pairs of frontal setae; carapace lacking distinct keels, finely granular, granules homogeneous, posterior median groove deep; median ocelli small, on low, inconspicuous ocular tubercule, ocelli separated by more than 1.2 ocellar diameters; three lateral ocelli per group; sternum pentagonal, with broad posterior median depression, four pairs of sternal macrosetae. Mesosoma: terga I-VI lacking keels, finely granular, granules homogeneous; tergum VII lacking median keel, with two pairs of serrated lateral keels that do not terminate in an enlarged posterior denticle; sterna I-VI smooth, lacking keels; stigma small, oval, length to width ratio 2.1, sternum VII with about 12 irregular posterior granules; 10 pairs of genital macrosetae, variable in length; Pectine: Three sclerites in marginal lamella, one proximal angular sclerite plus three irregular sclerites in middle lamella, large subtriangular fulcra, with fulcra similar to or slightly larger than adjacent sclerites of middle lamella, most fulcra lacking macrosetae, distal tooth laterally swollen, 2.0 x wider than adjacent teeth. Metasoma: dorsal and dorsolateral keels I-IV coarsely granular, with angular termination, terminal denticle similar to adjacent ones in size (Fig. 3); ventral and ventrolateral keels raised, coarsely granular, homogeneously developed on I-IV, ventromedian V single, not branched at terminus, dorsal keels with 0-1-1-1 pairs of macrosetae on segments I-IV, dorsolateral keels with 0-1-1-1 pairs of macrosetae on segments I-IV. Telson: vesicle smooth, lustrous, seven to eight pairs of macrosetae ventrally, Chelicerae: ventral margin of movable finger with three to four crenulations (Fig. 4), ventral surface of fixed finger lacking denticles; movable finger with two subdistal teeth on dorsal tine. Pedipalps: palm swollen obliquely, with heavy granular keels. Ventral surface of palm broad and flat; internal surface of fingers with narrow space proximally between fingers when chela closed; dorsal, prodorsal, and retrodorsal keels distinct and coarsely granular, ventral keel obsolete to obscure; retrolateral, prolateral, retroventral, and proventral keels distinct and broadly granular; proventral keel terminating medially at movable finger base; palm swollen toward prodorsal keel. Brachial macrosetae: two dorsals, five retrolaterals, one ventral, four prolaterals. Humeral macrosetae: three dorsals, nine retrolaterals, four ventrals, four prolaterals. Leg III: telotarsi each with 15-17 fine spinules in single ventromedian row, this row flanked by a prolateral and retrolateral row ofthree to five stout spiniform macrosetae (Fig. 1).
Male.-(Allotype). Similar to female (holotype) in color and structure except: smaller body size; large genital papillae present; metasoma slightly more slender; dorsal keel with 0-0-1-1 pairs of macrosetae; pedipalp palm more swollen.
distribution: NORTH AMERICA. USA (southeastern California): White Mountains, Inyo Mountains, and eastern Sierra Nevada from 1370-3080 m elevation .
Published Records: Paratypes: USA. CALIFORNIA. INYO Co.: (Inyo Mountains): Addie Canyon [36.937° N, -117.978° W, est.], el. 2160 m, 5 Aug 1975, D. Giuliani, 1 female; Addie Canyon [36.936° N, -117.977° W, est.], el. 2130 m, 20 May 1976, D. Giuliani, 2 females, 3 juveniles; Addie Canyon [36.936° N, -117.977° W, est.], el. 2130 m, 8 May 1974, L. LaPre, S. Mifras, 1 female (UCR); Beveridge Canyon [36.708° N, -117.930° W, est.], el. 2000 m, 4 Ju1 1975, D. Giuliani, 2 males, 1 juvenile; Beveridge Canyon [36.712° N, -117.951° W, est.], el. 2900 m, Jul1975, D. Giuliani, 1 male; Lead Canyon [36.921° N, -117.986° W, est.], el. 1951 m, 18 May 1976, D. Giuliani, 1 male (allotype); Lead Canyon [36.921° N, -117.986° W, est.], el. 1950 m, 18 May 1976, D. Giuliani, 1 male, 2 females, 1 juvenile; Lead Canyon [36.922° N, -117.989° W, est.], el. 1980 m, under rock, 11 Apr 1974, L. LaPre, M. Eells, 1 juvenile male (UCR); ridge N of Lead Canyon [36.710° N, -117.011° W, est.], el. 2134 m, Dec 1980, D. Howell, 1 female; 11.3 km (7 mi) N and 4.8 km (3 mi) E of Lone Pine [36.922° N, -117.989° W, est.], el. 1829 m, 14 Apr 1989, D. Giuliani, 1 male; Waucoba Canyon [36.995° N, -117.990° W, est.], el. 1980-2290 m, 9 Jun 1976, D. Giuliani, 2 males, 1 juvenile; Willow Creek, el. 1370 m, 16 Sep 1976, D. Giuliani, 3 females; White Mountains: 0.2 km (0.1 mi) NE of Batchelder Spring, 8.8 km (5.5 mi) N of and 8.8 km (5.5 mi) E of Big Pine [37.244° N, -118.193° W, est.], el. 1860 m, 28 Aug 1984 to 11 Jun 1985, D. Giuliani, alcohol/antifreeze pitfall, 1 male; The Narrows, 16.1 km (10 mi) NE of junction of state Highways 395 and 168 on Highway 168 [37.255°N, -118.159000°W, est.], el. 2100 m, 13 Aug 1988, W. E. Savary, R. Jackson, 1 male; 0.2 km (0.1 mi) NE of Batchelder Spring, 8.8 km (5.5 mi) N of and 8.8 km (5.5 mi) E of Big Pine [37.244° N, -118.193° W, est.], el. 1860 m, 1 Oct 1985 to 28 Jun 1986, D. Giuliani, alcohol/antifreeze pitfall, 1 male; Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest, 1.1 km (0.7 mi) S of Schulman Grove [37.377° N, -118.184° W, est.], el. 3080 m, 4 Sep 1988, S. C. Williams, V. F. Lee, female; 1.8 km (1.2 mi) S of Schulman Grove [37.370° N, -118.184° W, est.], el. 2930 m, 4 Sep 1988, S. C. Williams, V. F. Lee, 3 females, 1 juvenile; Marble Canyon, 16.1 km (10 mi) NNE of Big Pine [37.297° N, -118.212° W, est.], el. 2041 m, 9 Jun 1988, D. Giuliani, 1 male[erroneously reported as in Mono County by Williams & Savary (1991)], Sierra Nevada: Shannon Canyon, 4.8 km (3 mi) N and 8.0 km (5 mi) W Big Pine [37.192° N, -118.396° W, est.], el. 2042 m, 9 Jun 1988, D. Giuliani, 1 male.
notes: Diagnosis. -Characters that distinguish U. giulianii are: total length up to 40 mm; base color of body burnt umber to light tan, keels of metasoma and pedipalps often contrastingly darker than surrounding cuticle; median ocelli small, ratio of carapace width to diameter of diad 6.6-9.4 (oX = 8.0 ± 0.7, n = 14); chelicera with several small crenulations on ventral margin of movable finger (Fig. 4), superior tine ofmovable finger with two (rarely with one) subdistal teeth; pedipalp palm swollen obliquely toward prodorsal keel, ratio of chela length to palm width 2.7-3.4 (oX = 3.0 ± 0.2, n = 14), ratio of palm width to depth 0.7-0.8 (oX = 0.8 ± 0.04, n = 14); fixed finger ofchela with trichobothrium id on palm near finger origin, supernumerary denticles six on fixed and movable fingers (Figs. 13, 15), primary row denticles divided into six linear subrows on fixed and movable fingers; pectine teeth eight to nine in males, seven to eight in females. This species is related to U. huachuca in structure and coloration, but differs as follows: metasoma with dorsal keel macrosetal formula 0-0-1-1 or 0-1-1-1 on segments I-IV (not 0-0-0-0 or 0-0-0-1); aculeus shorter, ratio of vesicle length to aculeus length greater than 1.9 (x = 2.2 ± 0.1, n = 14).
Variation.-Paratypes similar to holotype and allotype in size, color, and structure with following exceptions: total length 20-36 mm in males, 27-40 mm in females; pectine tooth counts eight to nine in males, seven to eight in females; one female with one subdistal tooth on dorsal tine ofeach movable cheliceral finger, one female with one subdistal tooth on one side and two on the other side; smaller individuals lighter in coloration than larger ones; several specimens light tan in general coloration. Several specimens with lateral ocelli reduced to two per group.
Remarks. - Variable in coloration, adult size, and morphology. This and Paruroctonus boreus (Girard) are the only scorpions known to inhabit the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest. These two species are found at elevations higher than any other scorpion in North America. In the bristlecone pine forest, the environmental conditions probably restrict normal foraging and growing conditions to no more than three to four months ofthe year. The concurrence oflight tan forms and a distinctly melanic form suggests a life cycle that may be longer than one year. It has been collected under rocks and from exposed rocky surfaces at night by ultraviolet detection. This species is named after Derham Giuliani, a resident of Big Pine, California, in recognition of his significant collections of desert scorpions and contributions to our knowledge of desert biology.