Syntropis williamsi Soleglad, Lowe and Fet 2007
Syntropis williamsi Soleglad, Lowe and Fet 2007: 121-126, 128-133, Fig. 2, 4–15, 28–30, 33–34; Tables I–II.
Syntropis macrura: Lourenço, 2002: 140
HOLOTYPE: Syntropis williamsi Soleglad, Lowe and Fet, holotype (female), N. Los Aripes, Baja California Sur, Mexico, 25 June 1985 (W. Lourenço & G. Polis), deposited in Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Genève, Switzerland (MHNG).
Soleglad, Lowe and Fet 2007:
"DIAGNOSIS. Medium sized species for its genus, reaching 70 and 80 mm in adult females and males. Overall coloration a pale yellow lacking patterns, chelal fingers not pigmented. Pectinal tooth counts 24–26 in females, 25–28 in males. Pedipalpal femur and patella are 4.5 and 4.4 times longer than wide in adult females, 5 and 4.7 times longer than wide in adult males; metasomal segment V 4 to 4.3 times longer than wide on adult females, 5.2 times longer on adult males; telson vesicle is 2.3 times longer than deep in both females and males.
FEMALE. Description based on holotype female. Locality of holotype is North of Los Aripes, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Measurements of this holotype plus three paratype specimens are presented in Table I and important diagnostic morphometric ratios are provided in Table II. See Figure 2 for a dorsal view of the female holotype.
COLORATION. Basic color pale yellow. Mesosoma slightly darker yellow. No patterns visible, chelal fingers same color as palm. Telson aculeus, eyes and eye tubercles, and articulation condyles of legs reddish brown.
CARAPACE (Fig. 10). Anterior edge essentially straight with very broad subtle indentation, equipped with six setae; interocular area smooth, bisected by a subtle shallow indentation; posterior lateral aspects covered with medium to large granules. Posterior portion with deep medial groove, forming two conspicuous lateral posterior convexed lobes. Lateral eyes number three, decreasing in size posteriorly. Median eye tubercle thin, positioned anteriorly of middle with the following length and width formulas: 280|760 (anterior edge to medium tubercle middle|carapace length) and 97|565 (width of median tubercle including eyes|width of carapace at that point).
MESOSOMA (Fig. 7). Tergites I–IV smooth, V–VI with slight posteromedial granulation; tergite VII covered with coarse granules with two pairs of delicately crenulate carinae. Sternites smooth and lustrous; one pair of ventral lateral carinae present on segment V, rough to crenulate, median pair absent. Stigmata (Fig. 7) are long and slit-like.
METASOMA (Fig. 11, 33). Segments I–IV: dorsal and dorsolateral carinae delicately crenulate, dorsal (I–IV) and dorsolateral (I–III) carinae terminate with small spine; lateral carinae crenulate on I, crenulate on proximal 20 % of II, and obsolete on III–IV; ventrolateral smooth to granulate on I and crenulate on II–IV; and single ventromedian carina of I widely rounded, smooth on II–III, and smooth to granulate on IV. Dorsolateral carinae of segment IV terminus subtly flared, not terminating at articulation condyle. Segment V: dorsolateral carinae rounded and granulate; lateral carinae irregularly granulated for 50% of anterior aspect; ventrolateral and ventromedian carinae crenulate, ventromedian carina not bifurcated, terminating in straight line. Intercarinal areas smooth. Ventral setal formulae (I–V): 4|5|5|5|6.
TELSON (Figs. 33–34 and 12 (paratype male)). Somewhat elongated, with short aculeus, with 4/6 denticles in the laterobasal aculear serrations (LAS). Vesicle surface rough to smooth, covered ventrally with numerous elongated setae; basal dorsal aspect with vesicular “tabs” terminating in small hooked spine.
PECTINES (Fig. 6). Well developed elongated segments exhibiting length|width formula 660|150 (length taken at anterior lamellae|width at widest point including teeth). Sclerite construction complex, three anterior lamellae and 16/17 bead-like middle lamellae; fulcra of medium development. Teeth number 25/25 (note left pecten missing basal tooth, but its presence is indicated by basal fulcrum). Sensory areas developed along most of tooth inner length on all teeth, including basal tooth. Basal piece quite large, with deep indentation along anterior one-half, length|width formula 145|185 (i.e., 1.45 mm in length).
GENITAL OPERCULUM (Fig. 6). Sclerites connected for entire length, operating as a single unit, connection to body at extreme anterior edge, 85 % of sclerites are separated from mesosoma. No genital papillae (see discussion on male below).
STERNUM (Fig. 6). Type 2, posterior emargination present, well-defined convex lateral lobes, apex visible but not conspicuous; slightly wider than long, length|width formula 165|175; sclerite tapers anteriorly.
CHELICERAE (Fig. 14, paratype male). Movable finger dorsal edge with two subdistal (sd) denticles; ventral edge smooth; basal half with setal brush followed by medium developed serrulae with 15/13 contiguous tines, terminating just before distal tip. Ventral distal denticle (vd) longer than dorsal (dd) counterpart. Fixed finger with four denticles, median (m) and basal (b) denticles conjoined on common trunk; no ventral accessory denticles present.
PEDIPALPS (Figs. 4–5, 15, 28–30; Fig. 13, paratype male). Slender chelate species, no scalloping on chelal fingers, Femur (Fig. 28): Dorsointernal, dorsoexternal and ventrointerior carinae delicately crenulate, ventroexternal rounded to obsolete. Dorsal and ventral surfaces smooth, internal and external surfaces with line of large granules. Patella (Figs. 29–30): Dorsointernal, dorsoexternal, ventrointernal and ventroexternal carinae delicately crenulate; Dorsal Patellar Spur (DPSc) carina well developed with line of about 25 granules (Fig. 30); exteromedian carina obsolete. All surfaces smooth; internal surface with remnants of a DPS and Ventral Patellar Spur (VPS), each represented by a small solitary granule accompanied with a seta. Chelal carinae: digital (D1) carina weak and smooth; subdigital (D2) represented basally by one granule; dorsosecondary (D3) weak and rounded; dorsomarginal (D4) and dorsointernal (D5) rounded, irregularly granulose; ventroexternal (V1) rough and rounded, terminating at external condyle of movable finger; ventromedian (V2) weak and rounded, with subtle granulation on proximal one-half; ventrointernal (V3) rounded, irregularly granulated; external (E) weak and rounded, essentially obsolete. Chelal finger dentition (Figs. 4–5): median denticle (MD) row groups aligned in straight line, numbering 6 and 7 (counting the distal single MD denticle as a group on the movable finger); 6/6 and 8/8 internal denticles (ID) and 5/5 and 6/6 outer denticles (OD) on fixed and movable fingers, respectively. No accessory denticles present. OD denticles are situated on the distal half of both fingers. Number of MD denticles on movable finger is 101; ratio of MD denticle length to fixed finger depth is 1 to 10. Distal tips of both fingers with conspicuous “whitish” patch. Trichobothrial patterns (Fig. 15): Type C, orthobothriotaxic. Femur: trichobothrium d located next to dorsoexternal carina and proximal to i. Patella: ventral trichobothrium v3 located on external surface, distal of trichobothrium et3. Chela: trichobothrium Dt located at palm midpoint and Db positioned on or dorsal of D1 carina; ib–it situated adjacent to inner denticle (ID) six of fixed finger, ib adjacent to and it slightly distal of ID–6; spacing between trichobothria V1 and V2 approximately same as V2 and V3.
LEGS (Figs. 8–9). Both pedal spurs present, tibial spur absent. Tarsus with single median row of spinules on ventral surface, terminating distally with three spinule pairs.
HEMISPERMATOPHORE. Unknown. The large subadult male did not have a hemispermatophore.
MALE PARATYPE (Figs. 12–14). A large subadult specimen. Metasoma, telson (Fig. 12) and pedipalpal femur and patella of male is slightly more slender than that of female type (see morphometric ratios in Table II). No detectable proximal scallop on chelal movable finger (Fig. 13), however, though the male is large, we have declared it as subadult, so possibly the scallop may be present only on fully developed adults. Genital operculum is separated for most of its length, genital papillae visible proximally. Pectinal tooth counts 25–26.
FEMALE PARATYPE COMPARISONS. Two subadult females (16 to 21.5 % smaller than female holotype; carapaces are 4 to 16 % smaller) exhibited slightly heavier metasoma from holotype, segment V in holotype 4.2 to 11.7 % more slender; pedipalpal femur and patella proportions approximately the same as in holotype. Coloration the same as in holotype. Pectinal tooth count range for all three females, including holotype, is 24–25 (24.667) .
SPECIMENS EXAMINED. Adult female holotype, large subadult male paratype, and two subadult female paratypes; N. Los Aripes, Baja California Sur, Mexico, 25 June 1985 (W. R. Lourenço & G. A. Polis), all deposited in Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Genève. Note: Lourenço (2002: 140) incorrectly mentions 2 males and 2 females."
subsequent accounts: N/a
distribution: NORTH AMERICA. México Baja California Sur - extreme southern portion of Sierra de la Giganta.
Published Records: Paratype nmale (subadullt) and two females (subadult), N. Los Aripes, Baja California Sur, Mexico, 25 June 1985 (W. Lourenço & G. Polis); 56.8 km NW Los Aripes, 27 July 1968 (Williams, Bentzien, Bigelow); 24.1 NW Los Aripes, 27 July 1968 (Williams, Bentzien, Bigelow); N Los Aripes, 25 June 1985 (Lourenço, Polis).
notes: Soleglad, Lowe and Fet *2007) named this species in honor of Stanley C. Williams "whose studies in the biology of North American scorpions, especially Baja California, Mexico, have contributed significantly to our knowledge of scorpions in these areas." They noted that, "In particular, Williams (1980: 48) provided crucial information which helped us in the identification of this new species". Lourenço (2002: 140) incorrectly mentions 2 males and 2 females.