Smeringurus mesaensis (Stahnke 1957)
Paruroctonus mesaensis Stahnke, 1957: 253-259, fig. 1; Gertsch, 1958: 15-17; Stahnke, 1961: 206, 207; Stahnke, 1965: 262; Stahnke, 1974a: 138; Gertsch, 1958: 15-17 (erratum, p. 17, “imperialis”); Williams, 1972: 3; Soleglad, 1972a: 72, 75; Soleglad, 1973b: 355, fig. 7; Williams, 1976: 2; Williams, 1980: 32, 37-38, fig. 37D, 39, 44 (part); Polis & McCormick, 1986: 61; Yamashita & Polis, 1995a: 495-505; Yamashita & Polis, 1995b: 60-64; Fet et al., 1998: 613, fig. 2; Beutelspacher, 2000: 69, 136, 146, 152, map 37.
Vejovis (Paruroctonus) mesaensis: Gertsch & Allred, 1965: 9; Gertsch & Soleglad, 1966: 6, 35-37, 39, 40, fig. 26, 42-45, 55, 61, 62, 67, 70; Williams & Hadley, 1967: 106, 113-114; Williams, 1968b: 313; Williams, 1969a: 291; Williams, 1970b: 277, 281; Newlands, 1972: 248.
Vaejovis mesaensis: Díaz Najera, 1975: 7, 10, 31.
Paruroctonus (Smeringurus) mesaensis: Haradon, 1983: 262-264, 268, fig. 1, 9, 10, 17, 19.
Smeringurus mesaensis: Kovarík, 1998: 146; Sissom, 2000:525; Soleglad & Fet, 2003b: 6, fig. 32; Soleglad & Fet, 2003a: 8, 33, 150, 161, figs. 5, 76, B-1, B-2, B-3.
HOLOTYPE: Paruroctonus mesaensis Stahnke, 1957 Holotype: female from city dump NW of Mesa, Arizona, USA, March 13, 1947 (F. Parrat, I. F. Nichols). Deposited in the California Academy of Sciences (CAS, Type No. 15168).
Original description: Paruroctonus mesaensis Stahnke, 1957: 253-259, fig. 1.
Gertsch and Soleglad 1966
DIAGNOSIS: Many attaining 80 mm. in length, exceeded in size only by vachoni. Body pale except for small, dark mark across median eyes. Median eyes enlarged, set on conspicuous tubercle, diad of these eyes about one-third of width of carapace. Chelae very heavy and armed with coarsely granulated carinae in both sexes. Ventral surface of cauda thickly set with numerous short setae in irregular rows. Female and male shown in figures 61 and 62.
COLORATION: Entire body uniform pale yellow to clear yellow or orange except as follows: eyes black and eye tubercles crossed with black bar or crescent (fig. 67); reddish articulation spots at ends of leg segments; tip of sting red.
STRUCTURE: Similar to that of boreus except as indicated below. Males more slender, with thinner cauda and somewhat smaller than females. Measurements given in table 5.
Carapace: Shape of carapace of small female from Borrego Valley, California, as shown in figure 67. Anterior margin essentially straight, in some cases with trivial emargination at center, set with six suberect bristles; width at side eyes two-thirds of width at posterior margin; length usually clearly longer than greatest width (10/9). Median eyes large, set on quite conspicuous tubercles connate on inner margins; eyes separated by full diameter; width of median diad about one-third of width of carapace at that point. Interocular triangle roughened, sparsely set with large pale granules. Ridges flanking median groove behind median eyes thickly set with heavy pale granules, forming quite regular rows. Median groove a deep furrow behind, a shallow groovev over ocular tubercle, and a broad, less distinct furrow fading to anterior margin. Carapace of male as usual somewhat more granulose than that of female.
Preabdomen: Tergites of all segments finely granulated, seemingly quite smooth except along sides, with marginal row of granules; caudal half of each tergite with two distinct rows and scattered granules of medium size.
Cauda: With basic features of boreus but showing differences as follows: Dorsal and superior lateral keels of segments I-IV distinct and quite evenly granulated. Dorsal keel of segment V rounded, lightly granulose in female, more heavily granulose in male; superior lateral keel distinct only near base and lightly granulose. Inferior lateral keels distinct on all segments, lightly granulate on segment I, essentially smooth on segment II, lightly granulose on segment III, and heavily granulose on segments IV and V. Inferior median keels essentially obsolete on segment I, distinct but smooth on segments II and III, and quite heavily granulated on segments IV and V. Intercarinal spaces mostly smooth. All segments with scattered setae above, quite hirsute on ventral surfaces; areas of inferior median keels of segments I-IV thickly lined with numerous short setae in irregular rows.
Telson: Of female: essentially smooth, with vesicle more than twice as long as deep and slightly curved spine half as long as vesicle, set with a few long setae; of male: proportionately longer and thinner than that of female.
Pectines: Those of female quite long and slender as shown for vachoni (see fig. 66), about four times as long as median piece; middle lamellae consisting of about 20 ovoid pieces in principal row; pectinal teeth of medium length, 21-27 in number. Those of male much larger, like those of boreus, but with more numerous teeth-31-39.
Chelicerae: Robust, similar in both sexes as shown in figures 42-45, similar to those of boreus. Fixed finger short, quite stout, bearing four teeth on upper margin, of which basal pair is compound, and with distinct lower margin bearing three large, often dark teeth. Movable finger with typical five teeth on dorsal margin; lower margin bearing distinct keel dissected to form four or five large, rounded, pale teeth; distal teeth of both margins (figs. 43, 44) subequal in size and length.
Pedipalps: In both sexes of medium length, with heavy hands and stout fingers. Carinae on basal segments distinct and granular. Chelae greatly incrassated, essentially as in boreus, with all eight carinae conspicuous and armed with quite coarse granules. Inner keels of fingers lightly scalloped in females, armed with six principal files of denticles as shown in figure 26; inner keels of males more deeply scalloped.
Walking legs: First to third protarsi with regular series of six to nine long, stout bristles on dorsal surfaces; fourth protarsus with about six scattered bristles.
Diagnosis. Adults to 70 mm long. Body pale orange in juveniles to pale yellow in adults, contrasting dark color patterns lacking; carapace equal to or slightly shorter than movable pedipalp finger; metasoma with ventrolateral keels irregularly granular, ventromedian keels obsolete on segment I, smooth on segments II and III, crenular on IV; space between ventromedian keels with numerous, conspicuous, reddish setae; chelicerae with 3-5 small unpigmented denticles on ventral margin of movable finger; pectine teeth 23-25 in females, 32-39 in males.
Similar to P. vachoni and P. grandis. Distinguished from P. vachoni as follows: lack of dark dorsal markings, lack of reddish pedipalp fingers in adults. Distinguished from P. grandis as follows: lack of dark dorsal markings, ventromedian keels of metasoma obsolete on segment I and smooth on segments II and III (not crenulate on segments I-III).
distribution: NORTH AMERICA. México (deserts of Baja California Norte, Sonora), USA (deserts of Arizona, southern California)
Published Records: united states: arizona: Yuma County; Wellton, May 6, 1959, immature female; Fortuna Mine, May 13, 1957 (V. Roth), male. Maricopa County: City dump, northwest of Mesa, March 13, 1947 (F. Parrat, I. F. Nichols), female holotype; September 14, 1939 (H. L. Stahnke), male allotype.
california: Imperial County: Winterhaven, June 13, 1958 (V. Roth), female; Pilot's Knob, November 2, 1957 (V. Roth), male; 14 miles north of Winterhaven, February 7, 1965 (V. Roth), female; Midway Wells (F. Green, T. S. Briggs), female; 5 miles west of Seely, September 30, 1961 (V. Roth), female. Riverside County: Coachella Valley, May, 1953 (R. X. Schick), female; Coon Hollow, Mule Mountains, near Riverside, November 19, 1961 (D. Richman), female; Indian Wells, near Palm Springs, January 5, 1964 (R. Hennessey), in dunes, male, female. Kern County: Mojave (F. Russell), male. San Bernadino County: Sheep Creek Spring, 37 miles north of Baker, Death Valley National Monument, July, 1953 (R. L. Sweet), two females; Saratoga Springs, Death Valley National Monument, April 23, 1955 (R. X. Schick), two males, female; Pisgah Crater, July 26 to September 2, 1961-1962 (Norris, Heath), 13 males; Amboy Crater, July 11, 1956 (J. F. Lawrence), female; Twenty-nine Palms, July-August, 1945 (J. F. Branch), nine males, two females; 10 miles south of Kelso, April 15, 1961 (V. Roth), one immature. San Diego County: Borrego Valley, April 28, 1951 J. Rozen, D. Schrammel), sand dunes, male, four females (immature); 2 miles east of Anza-Borrego State Park, Highway 78, April 22, 1960 (W. J. Gertsch), male.
mexico: sonora: Punta Penasco, July 30, 1956 (M. Cazier), two males; Tiburon Island, June, 1960 (B. Douglass), immature male; Laguna Prieta, 20 miles southeast of San Luis, June 6, 1959 (V. Roth), immature. baja california norte: Southeast of Cocopa Mountains, April 16, 1958 (V. Roth), female; San Felipe, June 15, 1952 (W. J. Gertsch), female; Algodones, 18-VII-1969 (Williams, Lee); 34 km E La Rumorosa, E base Sierra Juarez, 8-VII-I969 (Williams, Lee); 8.0 km W Colonia Progreso, 8-VII-1969 (Williams, Lee); 26.9 km S Mexicali. 16-VII-1961 (Parrish); Laguna Salada, near base Canyon Tajo. 2-IV-I969 (Williams, Heringhi); 6.4 km N Rio Hardy Fish Camp, 19-VII-I969 (Williams, Lee); San Felipe, 8-VI-I968 (Williams, Cazier); Persebu, 23-VI-I973 (Williams, Blair); Sulfur Mine N Puertecitos, 4-IV-1973 (Szerlip.CIS): Bahia San Luis Gonzaga, 3-IV-1973 (Szerlip. CIS): Jaraguay Summit, 1973 (CIS).
notes: Williams (1980): "Prefers sand-dune habitats and is well adapted to travel over unconsolidated dune sand. It is often a dominant element in the scorpion community of sand dunes. Information about the bionomics of this species has been published (Williams and Hadley 1967; Hadley and Williams 1968)."