Paruroctonus luteolus ((Gertsch
& Soleglad 1966)
luteolus ►Gertsch & Soleglad, 1966: 6, 40-42, fig. 30, 52-54, 56,
63, 68, 69 (part, not records on p. 42 from San Felipe and 25 mi N Punta
Prieta in Baja California Norte, México)
Paruroctonus luteolus: Williams, 1972: 3, 5; Soleglad, 1972a: 74;
Soleglad, 1973b: 355, fig. 8; Stahnke, 1974a: 138; Williams,
1976: 2; ►Williams, 1980: 33, 34, 36, 117, fig. 36A, 37A-B, 41, 43, tbls.
5, 6, (part - see Haradon, 1984b:); Polls et al. 1981: 310, 311,
316, 317; ►Haradon,
1984b: 210; 323-325, fig. 3-4, 13, 21-22, 42-46; Polis &
McCormick, 1986: 61; Kovarík, 1998: 144; Beutelspacher, 2000:66, 136,
152, map 36 (part) ; Sissom, 2000:513; Soleglad & Fet, 2003a: 8, 150,
figs. 75, B-1.
Paruroctonus luteolis (ISS): Polis & Farley, 1979: 526.
Paruroctonus borregoensis (MIS): Polis & Farley, 1979: 526; Polis and Farley 1979a: 38,
41; Polis and Farley 1979b: 526; Polls 1980: 27, tbl. 1; Polis
et al. 1981: 310, 311, 317.
luteolus: Diaz-Nijera 1975: 7, 10 (repeats misidentifieation of Gertsch
and Soleglad 1966: 42).
luteolus Gertsch & Soleglad, holotype (adult female): AMNH, 2 miles
(3.2 km) E Anza-Borrego
State Park on Highway 78, San Diego County, California, USA, 22-IV-1960, (W. J. Gertsch)..
Gertsch and Soleglad 1966:
"DIAGNOSIS: Very distinct species (fig. 63), probably
smallest of group, with females not exceeding 30 mm.
in length. Pedipalps having small hands with short
fingers and carinae quite smooth in females. Pectinal tooth count quite low, 11-14 in females
and about 17 in males.
body yellow to bright
orange-brown, except for black eyes and tubercles and red tip of sting; black color
tubercles usually forming
transverse bar between eyes
STRUCTURE: Similar to
boreus and relatives in both sexes except as noted below. Males considerably
smaller than females in available material. Measurements
given in table 4.
Carapace: Shape of carapace of female
from 2 miles east of Anza-Borrego State Park, California, as shown in figure 68. Carapace essentially straight, at most with
forward curvature, with six short bristles on margin; sides straight to broadly rounded
at posterior corners; length and breadth behind
subequal. Median eyes set on low, smooth tubercles; width of
median diad one-fourth of width of carapace at that point. Carapace of
smooth and shining, without
conspicuous granules visible under
low power; of male, dull, rough, with
quite heavy granules on elevated areas.
Preabdomen: Tergites quite smooth and shining in female,
with weak granulation; duller and rougher in male, with numerous weak
Cauda: Dorsal and superior lateral keels of female not
prominent, clear and smooth, with edges slightly and somewhat irregularly
serrulate. Inferior lateral keels largely
obsolete on segments I and II, visible and weakly crenulate in posterior
third of segment III, more distinct and with weak granules in posterior half of segment IV. Inferior median
keels obsolete on basal segments, faintly visible and weakly crenulate
on segment IV. Segments I-IV with 3-4-4-5
setae on obsolete, inferior, median keels. Segment V only slightly
longer than carapace; dorsum unevenly covered with round granules;
intercarinal spaces on ventral surface covered with granules.
Keels of males more
prominent and with heavier granules.
Telson: In both sexes slender, with
slightly curved sting half as long
as granulated vesicle.
Pectines: Those of
female as shown in figure 69, rather
small, only twice as long as wide
median piece; middle lamellae inconspicuous, consisting of
about 12 or 13 round pieces; pectinal teeth
short, 11-15 in
number. Those of male much larger and
piece about as
long as broad; middle lamellae
consisting of 13-15 round
pieces; pectinal teeth twice as long as those of female, distinctly angled at middle, 16-19
Genital operculum: Of
female as shown in figure 69.
Chelicerae: Similar in
both sexes (figs. 52-54), quite similar to those of boreus. Lower margin of fixed finger weakly developed, with
traces of two weak nodules. Movable
finger with five strong teeth,
margin of which distal tooth is
well developed; lower margin with very stout distal tooth and keel lightly crenulated.
Pedipalps: Those of female of medium length, with chelae short with short fingers (fig. 30). Carinae on basal segment rounded,
weakly granulated. Chela with all eight carinae visible, mostly quite smooth,
with light granulation at angles. Those of male with proportions of those of
female, but carinae more developed and quite heavily granulated. Inner keels of fingers essentially straight, dentate as in boreus.
Walking legs: Protarsi of second
and third legs with six to eight long setae."
"Diagnosis. Adults to 30 mm long. Entire body light
yellow to orange-brown, no contrasting dark color patterns; females with
terga and carapace smooth and lustrous, males somewhat more granular and
less lustrous. Metasoma with dorsal and dorsolateral keels not
prominent, these smooth; ventrolateral keels more or less obsolete on
segments I and II, visible and weakly crenulate on posterior of segment
III, more distinct and with weak granules on posterior region of segment
IV;metasoma with ventromedian keels of segments I-III obsolete, on
segment IV faintly visible and weakly crenulate; pectine teeth 11-15 in
females, 16-19 in males; chelicera with ventral margin of movable finger
lightly crenulated, ventral margin of fixed finger with traces of two
"Diagnosis. - A species in the borregoensis group of subgenus
Paruroctonus differentiated by: telotarsus III with two retrosuperior setae (Fig. 13);
basitarsus III with six (4 + 2); superior setae (Figs. 44-45), moderately large
extraneous setae often present; brachium with five internal macrosetae, including msm (Fig.
3); telotarsus I with one retroinferior terminal setae.
Comparisons: Table 2. Differs further from P. borregoensis and P. ba/ae
having more deeply scalloped pedipalp fingers in adult male (Fig.
21). Differs further from P. borregoensis in having four external medial
macrosetae on distal 3/5 of humerus (Fig. 4); long dorsal and dorsolateral metasomal setae I-IV in
both sexes; four internal macrosetae on pedipalp palm, two on fixed finger, in both sexes.
Differs further from P. bajae in having granular ventrolateral and ventral metasomal
carinae I-IV in male.
Variation.-Two relatively distinct populations are
characterized as follows:
Population I. Distribution: Colorado Desert, primarily
northwest and west of the Salton Sea. Description: adult carapace length in adult
males 3.0-5.0 mm (4.23 ± 0.38 mm, n = 56), females 4.0-6.6 mm (4.42 + 0.33 mm, n = 77);
carapace length/pedipalppalm width ratio in adult males 1.6-1.8 (1.77 + 0.05, n =
55), females 2.2-2.7 (2.49 + 0.11, n = 81); pectinal teeth in males 16-22 (18.83 + 1.30,
n -- 162), females 10-16 (13.17 + 1.05, n = 228), 81.6% of females with 13 or more.
Population II. Distribution: Mojave Desert and southern
Nevada. Description: adult carapace length in males 2.8-3.8 mm (3.20 + 0.18
mm, n = 49), females 3.2-4.8 mm (3 .52 + 0.31 mm, n = 29); carapace length/pedipalp palm width
ratio in adult males 1.9-2.3 (2.04 + 0.11, n = 50), females 2.5-2.9 (2.71 -+ 0.14, n =
30); pectinal teeth in males 16-19 (17.46 + 0.96, n = I08), females 10-13 (11.60 + 0.76, n =
86), 88.4% of females with 12 or fewer."
AMERICA. México (Baja California Norte - extreme
northeastern desert region),
USA (deserts of southern
California, southwestern Arizona, and southern Nevada).
San Bernardino County: Twentynine
Palms, March-April, 1945 (J. H. Branch), male, female;
Pisgah Crater, May 6 to October 7, 1961-1962
(Norris and Heath), 20 males, three females. San Diego County: Two miles east of
Anza-Borrego State Park, April 22, 1960
(W. J. Gertsch), female. Riverside County:
Indio, April 3, 1959
(W. J. Gertsch), female.
Baja California Norte, Mexico: W side Laguna Salada, 11-1963 (Barr); San
Felipe. 8-VI-I968 (Williams, Cazier); Persebu. 23-VI-1973 (Williams, Blair);
Oakie Landing, 12-VI-1968 (Williams. Cazier); 13 km N Bahia San Luis
Gonzaga, 13-VI-I968 (Williams, Cazier).
Haradon's (1984b) Population I. U.S.A.: CALIFORNIA: Riverside County, Snow Creek Campground 1.2 km N W Palm Springs 1980 (S. J. McCormick),
males, 8 females (WDS); North Palm Springs, 13 May1 972 (R. M. Haradon), 7 males, 13
females (CAS); 0.7 mi. NW Thousand Palms, 20 April 1973 (R. M. Haradon, J. L. Marks), 2 females (CAS); several mi. NW Indio, 8 April 1974
(R. M. .H aradon, W. .E . Savary), 3 males, 4 females (CAS); 1 mi. E Mecca
(189 feet), 29 September (M. A. Cazier et al.), 4 males, 2 females (CAS); San Diego County, 3 mi. NW Borrego Springs, 7 October
1967 (M. A . Cazier et al.), 36 males, 15 females (CAS); 7.2 nil. S Borrego Springs on State 78, 22 December
1965 (K. Horn), 1 male (CAS); Ocotillo Wells,
7 October 1967 (M. A. Cazier et al.), 1 male, 2 females (CAS); Imperial County, 19 mi
W Calexico, 6 July 1969(S. C. Williams, V. Lee, male, 1 female (CAS). ARIZONA: Yuma County, Dateland, sand dunes (500 feet), 13 October 1967 (M. A. Cazier
et al.), 1 male (OFF). MEXICO: BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: W side Laguna Salada, February 1963 (
I. L. Barr), 1 male (CAS).
Haradon's (1984b) Population II. U.S.A.: NEVADA: Lincoln County, 10 mi. S. Lower Pahranagat Lake, 31 August 1973 (J. Landy), 1 male (OFF): CALIFORNA: Inyo
County. Panamint Valley, sand dunes, 13 September 1972 (D. Giuliani), 1 female (CAS); Death Valley
Natl. Mon., Bennetts Wells, 14 April 1968 ( S. Lytle, B. Nevelyn), 2 females (CAS); San Bernardino County, Death Valley Natl. Mont., Saratoga Springs, 11 June 1970 (M. A . Cazier
et al.), 4
males, 6 females (CAS, O FF); 7 mi. W Ludlow, 26 March 1972 (H. B. Leech), 1 female (CAS); 3 mi. W Amboy, 11
May 1968 (M. A. Cazier), 13 females (CAS); 8 mi. S Amboy, 11 May 1968 (M.A . Cazier et
al.), 1 female (CAS), Pisgah Crater, August 1974 (R. M. H aradon, W. E. Savary), 36 males, 16
females (CAS), 3 mi. W Adelanto, 4 September 1972 (R. M. H aradon, J . L. Marks), 2 males, 9
females (CAS), Twentynine Palms, 28 1973 (R. M. Haradon, J,. L. Marks) 2 males,3 females (CAS).
Williams (1980) considered Paruroctonus bajae Williams
1972 to be a junior synonym of this species.
More than in other species of the borregoensis
group, P. luteolus often
has one to three moderately large extraneous setae on the
superior surface of the basitarsi. The most common of such setae occurs along the prosuperior
border just proximal to but offset from the distal row in the diagnostic series. In all
the specimens that were studied, however, the basic pattern of 4 + 2 superior setae on
basitarsi II and III remained detectable.