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FAMILY VAEJOVIDAEGenus ParavaejovisGenus Paruroctonus

boreus infragroup

     Paruroctonus arnaudi
     Paruroctonus bantai
          Paruroctonus bantai bantai
          Paruroctonus bantai saratoga
     Paruroctonus boreus
     Paruroctonus maritimus
     Paruroctonus silvestrii
     Paruroctonus variabilis
   becki microgroup
     Paruroctonus becki
   xanthus microgroup
     Paruroctonus xanthus
   baergi microgroup
     Paruroctonus arenicola
          Paruroctonus arenicola arenicola
          Paruroctonus arenicola nudipes
     Paruroctonus baergi
     Paruroctonus boquillas
     Paruroctonus marksi
     Paruroctonus utahensis
gracilior infragroup
     Paruroctonus gracilior
stahnkei infragroup
   stahnkei microgroup
     Paruroctonus stahnkei
   shulovi microgroup
     Paruroctonus shulovi
          Paruroctonus shulovi shulovi
          Paruroctonus shuvoli nevadae
     Paruroctonus simulatus
   borregoensis microgroup
     Paruroctonus ammonastes
     Paruroctonus bajae
     Paruroctonus borregoensis
          Paruroctonus b. borregoensis
          Paruroctonus b. actites
     Paruroctonus hirsutipes
     Paruroctonus luteolus
     Paruroctonus nitidus
     Paruroctonus pseudopumilis
     Paruroctonus surensis
     Paruroctonus ventosus
   williamsi microgroup
     Paruroctonus pecos
     Paruroctonus williamsi

Genus PseudouroctonusGenus Serradigitus
Genus Smeringerus
Genus Syntropis
Genus Uroctonites
Genus Uroctonus
Genus Vaejovis
Genus Vejovoidus

Catalog of the VaejovidaeVaejovid  Bibliography

Why study vaejovids?

Paruroctonus luteolus ((Gertsch & Soleglad 1966)

Vejovis (Paruroctonus) luteolus Gertsch & Soleglad, 1966: 6, 40-42, fig. 30, 52-54, 56, 63, 68, 69 (part, not records on p. 42 from San Felipe and 25 mi N Punta Prieta in Baja California Norte, México)
Paruroctonus luteolus
: Williams, 1972: 3, 5; Soleglad, 1972a: 74; Soleglad, 1973b: 355, fig. 8; Stahnke, 1974a: 138; Willia
ms, 1976: 2; ►Williams, 1980: 33, 34, 36, 117, fig. 36A, 37A-B, 41, 43, tbls. 5, 6,  (part - see Haradon, 1984b:); Polls et al. 1981: 310, 311, 316, 317; ►Haradon, 1984b: 210;  323-325, fig. 3-4, 13, 21-22, 42-46; Polis & McCormick, 1986: 61; Kovarík, 1998: 144; Beutelspacher, 2000:66, 136, 152, map 36 (part) ; Sissom, 2000:513; Soleglad & Fet, 2003a: 8, 150, figs. 75, B-1.
Paruroctonus luteolis
(ISS): Polis & Farley, 1979: 526.
Paruroctonus borregoensis
(MIS):  Polis & Farley, 1979: 526;
Polis and Farley 1979a: 38, 41;  Polis and Farley 1979b: 526;  Polls 1980: 27, tbl. 1;  Polis et al. 1981: 310,  311, 317.
not Vaejovis luteolus: Diaz-Nijera 1975: 7, 10 (repeats misidentifieation of Gertsch and Soleglad 1966: 42).

type(s) :  Vejovis (Paruroctonus) luteolus Gertsch & Soleglad, holotype (adult female): AMNH, 2 miles (3.2 km) E Anza-Borrego State Park on Highway 78, San Diego County, California, USA, 22-IV-1960, (W. J. Gertsch)..

original description:
Gertsch and Soleglad 1966:

"DIAGNOSIS: Very distinct species (fig. 63), probably smallest of group, with females not exceeding 30 mm. in length. Pedipalps having small hands with short fingers and carinae quite smooth in females. Pectinal tooth count quite low, 11-14 in females and about 17 in males.
COLORATION: Entire body yellow to bright orange-brown, except for black eyes and tubercles and red tip of sting; black color of eye tubercles usually forming transverse bar between eyes (fig. 68).
STRUCTURE: Similar to that of boreus and relatives in both sexes except as noted below. Males considerably smaller than females in available material. Measurements given in table 4.
Carapace: Shape of carapace of female from 2 miles east of Anza-Borrego State Park, California, as shown in figure 68. Carapace essentially straight, at most with gentle forward curvature, with six short bristles on margin; sides straight to broadly rounded at posterior corners; length and breadth behind subequal. Median eyes set on low, smooth tubercles; width of median diad one-fourth of width of carapace at that point. Carapace of female smooth and shining, without conspicuous granules visible under low power; of male, dull, rough, with quite heavy granules on elevated areas.
Preabdomen: Tergites quite smooth and shining in female, with weak granulation; duller and rougher in male, with numerous weak granules.
Cauda: Dorsal and superior lateral keels of female not prominent, clear and smooth, with edges slightly and somewhat irregularly serrulate. Inferior lateral keels largely obsolete on segments I and II, visible and weakly crenulate in posterior third of segment III, more distinct and with weak granules in posterior half of segment IV. Inferior median keels obsolete on basal segments, faintly visible and weakly crenulate on segment IV. Segments I-IV with 3-4-4-5 pairs of setae on obsolete, inferior, median keels. Segment V only slightly longer than carapace; dorsum unevenly covered with round granules; intercarinal spaces on ventral surface covered with granules. Keels of males more prominent and with heavier granules.
Telson: In both sexes slender, with slightly curved sting half as long as granulated vesicle.
Pectines: Those of female as shown in figure 69, rather small, only twice as long as wide median piece; middle lamellae inconspicuous, consisting of about 12 or 13 round pieces; pectinal teeth short, 11-15 in number. Those of male much larger and broader; median piece about as long as broad; middle lamellae consisting of 13-15 round pieces; pectinal teeth twice as long as those of female, distinctly angled at middle, 16-19 in number.
Genital operculum: Of female as shown in figure 69.
Chelicerae: Similar in both sexes (figs. 52-54), quite similar to those of boreus. Lower margin of fixed finger weakly developed, with traces of two weak nodules. Movable finger with five strong teeth, on upper margin of which distal tooth is well developed; lower margin with very stout distal tooth and keel lightly crenulated.
Pedipalps: Those of female of medium length, with chelae short with short fingers (fig. 30). Carinae on basal segment rounded, weakly granulated. Chela with all eight carinae visible, mostly quite smooth, with light granulation at angles. Those of male with proportions of those of female, but carinae more developed and quite heavily granulated. Inner keels of fingers essentially straight, dentate as in boreus.
Walking legs: Protarsi of second and third legs with six to eight long setae."

subsequent accounts:
Williams (1980):

"Diagnosis. Adults to 30 mm long. Entire body light yellow to orange-brown, no contrasting dark color patterns; females with terga and carapace smooth and lustrous, males somewhat more granular and less lustrous. Metasoma with dorsal and dorsolateral keels not prominent, these smooth; ventrolateral keels more or less obsolete on segments I and II, visible and weakly crenulate on posterior of segment III, more distinct and with weak granules on posterior region of segment IV;metasoma with ventromedian keels of segments I-III obsolete, on segment IV faintly visible and weakly crenulate; pectine teeth 11-15 in females, 16-19 in males; chelicera with ventral margin of movable finger lightly crenulated, ventral margin of fixed finger with traces of two weak nodules."

Haradon, 1984b:

"Diagnosis. - A species in the borregoensis group of subgenus Paruroctonus differentiated by: telotarsus III with two retrosuperior setae (Fig. 13); basitarsus III with six (4 + 2); superior setae (Figs. 44-45), moderately large extraneous setae often present; brachium with five internal macrosetae, including msm (Fig. 3); telotarsus I with one retroinferior terminal setae.
Comparisons: Table 2. Differs further from P. borregoensis and P. ba/ae in having more deeply scalloped pedipalp fingers in adult male (Fig. 21).  Differs further from P. borregoensis in having four external medial macrosetae on distal 3/5 of humerus (Fig. 4); long dorsal and dorsolateral metasomal setae I-IV in both sexes; four internal macrosetae on pedipalp palm, two on fixed finger, in both sexes. Differs further from P. bajae in having granular ventrolateral and ventral metasomal carinae I-IV in male.
Variation.-Two relatively distinct populations are characterized as follows:
Population I. Distribution: Colorado Desert, primarily northwest and west of the Salton Sea. Description: adult carapace length in adult males 3.0-5.0 mm (4.23 ± 0.38 mm, n = 56), females 4.0-6.6 mm (4.42 + 0.33 mm, n = 77); carapace length/pedipalppalm width ratio in adult males 1.6-1.8 (1.77 + 0.05, n = 55), females 2.2-2.7 (2.49 + 0.11, n = 81); pectinal teeth in males 16-22 (18.83 + 1.30, n -- 162), females 10-16 (13.17 + 1.05, n = 228), 81.6% of females with 13 or more.
Population II. Distribution: Mojave Desert and southern Nevada. Description: adult carapace length in males 2.8-3.8 mm (3.20 + 0.18 mm, n = 49), females 3.2-4.8 mm (3 .52 + 0.31 mm, n = 29); carapace length/pedipalp palm width ratio in adult males 1.9-2.3 (2.04 + 0.11, n = 50), females 2.5-2.9 (2.71 -+ 0.14, n = 30); pectinal teeth in males 16-19 (17.46 + 0.96, n = I08), females 10-13 (11.60 + 0.76, n = 86), 88.4% of females with 12 or fewer."

distribution: NORTH AMERICA. México (Baja California Norte - extreme northeastern desert region), USA (deserts of southern California, southwestern Arizona, and southern Nevada). View Map

published records:  California: San Bernardino County: Twentynine Palms, March-April, 1945 (J. H. Branch), male, female; Pisgah Crater, May 6 to October 7, 1961-1962 (Norris and Heath), 20 males, three females. San Diego County: Two miles east of Anza-Borrego State Park, April 22, 1960 (W. J. Gertsch), female. Riverside County: Indio, April 3, 1959 (W. J. Gertsch), female.
Baja California Norte, Mexico: W side Laguna Salada, 11-1963 (Barr); San Felipe. 8-VI-I968 (Williams, Cazier); Persebu. 23-VI-1973 (Williams, Blair); Oakie Landing, 12-VI-1968 (Williams. Cazier); 13 km N Bahia San Luis Gonzaga, 13-VI-I968 (Williams, Cazier).
Haradon's (1984b) Population I. U.S.A.: CALIFORNIA: Riverside County, Snow Creek Campground 1.2 km N W  Palm Springs 1980 (S. J. McCormick), 12 males, 8 females (WDS); North Palm Springs, 13 May1 972 (R. M. Haradon), 7 males, 13 females (CAS); 0.7 mi. NW Thousand Palms, 20 April 1973 (R. M. Haradon, J. L. Marks), 2 females (CAS); several mi. NW Indio, 8 April 1974 (R. M. .H aradon, W. .E . Savary),  3 males, 4 females (CAS); 1 mi. E Mecca (189 feet), 29 September (M. A. Cazier  et al.), 4 males, 2 females (CAS); San Diego County, 3 mi. NW Borrego Springs, 7 October 1967 (M. A . Cazier et al.), 36 males, 15 females (CAS); 7.2 nil. S Borrego Springs on State 78, 22 December 1965 (K. Horn), 1 male (CAS); Ocotillo Wells, 7 October 1967 (M. A. Cazier  et al.), 1 male, 2 females (CAS); Imperial County, 19 mi W  Calexico, 6 July 1969(S. C. Williams, V. Lee, male, 1 female (CAS). ARIZONA: Yuma County, Dateland, sand dunes (500 feet), 13 October 1967 (M. A. Cazier et al.), 1 male (OFF). MEXICO: BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: W side Laguna Salada, February 1963 ( I. L. Barr), 1 male (CAS).
Haradon's (1984b) Population II. U.S.A.: NEVADA: Lincoln County, 10 mi. S. Lower Pahranagat Lake, 31 August 1973 (J. Landy), 1 male (OFF): CALIFORNA: Inyo County. Panamint Valley, sand dunes, 13 September 1972 (D. Giuliani), 1 female (CAS); Death Valley Natl. Mon., Bennetts Wells, 14 April 1968 ( S. Lytle, B. Nevelyn), 2 females (CAS); San Bernardino County, Death Valley Natl. Mont., Saratoga Springs, 11 June 1970 (M. A . Cazier et al.), 4 males, 6 females (CAS,  O FF); 7 mi. W Ludlow, 26 March 1972 (H. B. Leech), 1 female (CAS); 3 mi. W Amboy, 11 May 1968  (M. A. Cazier), 13 females (CAS); 8 mi. S Amboy, 11 May 1968 (M.A . Cazier et al.), 1 female (CAS), Pisgah Crater, August 1974 (R. M. H aradon, W. E. Savary), 36 males, 16 females (CAS), 3 mi. W Adelanto, 4 September 1972 (R. M. H aradon, J . L. Marks), 2 males, 9 females (CAS), Twentynine Palms, 28 1973 (R. M. Haradon, J,. L. Marks) 2 males,3 females (CAS).

notes:   Williams (1980) considered Paruroctonus bajae Williams 1972 to be a junior synonym  of this species.

Haradon, 1984b:

More than in other species of the borregoensis group, P. luteolus often has one to three moderately large extraneous setae on the superior surface of the basitarsi. The most common of such setae occurs along the prosuperior border just proximal to but offset from the distal row in the diagnostic series. In all the specimens that were studied, however, the basic pattern of 4 + 2 superior setae on basitarsi II and III remained detectable.


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