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FAMILY VAEJOVIDAEGenus ParavaejovisGenus Paruroctonus

boreus infragroup

     Paruroctonus arnaudi
     Paruroctonus bantai
          Paruroctonus bantai bantai
          Paruroctonus bantai saratoga
     Paruroctonus boreus
     Paruroctonus maritimus
     Paruroctonus silvestrii
     Paruroctonus variabilis
   becki microgroup
     Paruroctonus becki
   xanthus microgroup
     Paruroctonus xanthus
   baergi microgroup
     Paruroctonus arenicola
          Paruroctonus arenicola arenicola
          Paruroctonus arenicola nudipes
     Paruroctonus baergi
     Paruroctonus boquillas
     Paruroctonus marksi
     Paruroctonus utahensis
gracilior infragroup
     Paruroctonus gracilior
stahnkei infragroup
   stahnkei microgroup
     Paruroctonus stahnkei
   shulovi microgroup
     Paruroctonus shulovi
          Paruroctonus shulovi shulovi
          Paruroctonus shuvoli nevadae
     Paruroctonus simulatus
   borregoensis microgroup
     Paruroctonus ammonastes
     Paruroctonus bajae
     Paruroctonus borregoensis
          Paruroctonus b. borregoensis
          Paruroctonus b. actites
     Paruroctonus hirsutipes
     Paruroctonus luteolus
     Paruroctonus nitidus
     Paruroctonus pseudopumilis
     Paruroctonus surensis
     Paruroctonus ventosus
   williamsi microgroup
     Paruroctonus pecos
     Paruroctonus williamsi

Genus PseudouroctonusGenus Serradigitus
Genus Smeringerus
Genus Syntropis
Genus Uroctonites
Genus Uroctonus
Genus Vaejovis
Genus Vejovoidus

Catalog of the VaejovidaeVaejovid  Bibliography

Why study vaejovids?

Paruroctonus boreus (Girard 1854)

Scorpio (Telegonus) boreus Girard, 1854: 267-269, zool. plt. xvii, figs. 5-7 (part; not Eagle Pass, Texas record).
Buthus boreus: Wood, 1863a: 110; Wood, 1863b: 368.
Vejovis boreus: Marx, 1888 (1890) 91; Banks, 1900a: 424; Banks, 1910: 187, 189; Comstock, 1912: 31; Webster, 1923: 248; Chamberlin, 1924: 64; Werner, 1934: 282; Comstock, 1940: 31; Stahnke, 1940: 101; Gertsch, 1958: 6 (part); Bücherl, 1971: 329; Knowlton, 1972: 2.
Unidentified scorpion: Robinson, 1924: 64.
Vaejovis boreus: Ewing, 1928: 10, 12; Kurata, 1930: 28; Hjelle, 1972: 6, 22-23, fig. 46, 51.
Vejovis aquilonalis Stahnke, 1940:
101 (synonymized by Sissom & Francke, 1981: 94).
(Paruroctonus) boreus: Gertsch & Allred, 1965: 9 (part); Gertsch & Soleglad, 1966: 6, 7-14, fig. 1-3, 6, 8, 10, 11, 16-17, 24-25, 31, 46-48, 57.
(Paruroctonus) aquilonalis: Gertsch & Allred, 1965: 9, fig. 8, 20; Gertsch & Soleglad, 1966: 7, 42-44, fig. 20, 23 (part; see Sissom & Francke, 1981: 94); Williams, 1968b: 313.
(Paruroctonus) auratus ►Gertsch & Soleglad, 1966: 7, 34, 44-47, fig. 55, 58 (part; holotype only) (synonymized by Haradon, 1985: 25); Williams, 1968b: 313.
Paruroctonus aquilonalis
: Williams, 1972: 3; Soleglad, 1972: 74; Soleglad, 1973b: 355; Stahnke, 1974: 138; Sissom & Francke, 1981: 94.
Paruroctonus auratus
: Williams, 1972: 3; Soleglad, 1972: 75 (part); Soleglad, 1973b: 355 (part); Stahnke, 1974: 138; Williams, 1976: 2; Williams, 1980: 47; Sissom & Francke, 1981: 96 (part).
Paruroctonus boreus
: Williams, 1972: 3; Soleglad, 1972a: 74; Soleglad, 1973b: 355; Allred, 1973: 251–254; Stahnke, 1974a: 138; Tourtlotte, 1974: 167-179; Anderson, 1975: 7–13, fig. 2, 7, 9–10, 12, tab. 1; Williams, 1976: 2; Allred & Gertsch, 1976: 93–96; Sissom & Francke, 1981: 93-94, 96; ►Haradon, 1985: 24-27, 41, fig. 1-2; Williams, 1987b: 329; Sissom, 1997: 13; Kovarík, 1998: 143; Sissom & Jackman, 1997: 151; Sissom, 2000:507-508; Soleglad & Fet, 2003a: 8, 150, 161, figs. 75, B-1, B-2.

of Scorpio (Telegonus) boreus Girard 1854: Female (adult) from the "Valley of the Great Salt Lake of Utah", collected by "Capt. Howard Stansbury". Depository: United States National Museum.
of Vejovis aquilonalis Stahnke 1940: Holotype male (adult) from U .S.A., Arizona, (Coconino County), 30 mi. S Grand Canyon on Hwy. 64; locality corrected by Sissom and Francke (1981: 94). Depository: California Academy of Sciences.
Vejovis (Paruroctonus) auratus Gertsch & Soleglad 1966: Holotype female (adult) from U.S.A., California, San Bernardino County (Death Valley Natl. Mon.), Saratoga Springs. Depository : American Museum of Natural History .

Original Description: .

subsequent accounts:
Gertsch and Soleglad 1966

"DIAGNOSIS: Medium-sized, with conventional yellow base color of group that is marked with black pattern. V-shaped black marking centered on median eyes and, in many, dusky side streaks on thoracic portion of carapace. Tergites of preabdomen bearing dusky transverse bands except for a narrow, yellow band along margins. Median eyes average in size, set on two connate tubercles forming a low, oval eminence. Width of diad of median eye at most one-fourth of width of carapace at that point. Setae on ventral aspect of cauda relatively few, 2-3-3-4 pairs on segments I-IV. Chelae very heavy, with heavily granulated carinae in both sexes. Habitus of male and female shown in figures 2 and 3.
COLORATION: Base color pale yellow to orange-brown in alcoholic specimens of both sexes and with more or less developed dusky or black pattern on carapace and preabdomen as shown in figures 6 and 8. Eyes and eye tubercles black. Carapace with dark, V-shaped patch at median eyes and with dusky bands running to side eyes. Anterior portion of interocular triangle usually pale. Rest of carapace either pale or with few radiating dusky lines and side patches. Immature specimens, especially young males, often strongly marked with black, approaching pattern of silvestrii. Specimens from Oregon (fig. 57) and Washington with much darker pattern than those from Great Basin Region and Rocky Mountain states (figs. 2, 3). Tergites I-VI of preabdomen with transverse dusky bands as shown in figure 8, each enclosing pair of yellow ovoid spots near middle and irregular series of yellow spots running to side margins; behind dark bands of these tergites a transverse pale stripe along hind margins. Tergite VII paler than others, with more variable markings. Under side of carapace and sternites of preabdomen usually clear yellow to orange-brown. Cauda with yellow base color, usually unmarked above but below with series of four dusky lines (fig. 17) running from first to fourth segment and marking positions of obsolete carinae; these markings variable, more distinct in younger specimens, in some scarcely visible. Legs and pectines pale yellow. Sting red.
STRUCTURE: Typical of subgenus and similar in both sexes except as indicated. Male smaller than female, with somewhat thinner cauda. Measurements given in table 1. Carapace: Shape of carapace of female from Green River, Utah, as shown in figure 6. Anterior margin essentially straight, set with six suberect bristles, rather sharply angled around side eyes; sides essentially straight, broadly rounded at posterior corners; breadth behind nearly equal to length. Median eyes of average size, set on low tubercle; width of median diad about one-fourth of width of carapace at that point (23 /100). Three eyes in each side group, of which hind one smallest. Interocular tubercle smooth, but rest of carapace finely to coarsely granulose over much of surface. Interocular triangle quite smooth, but with heavier granules on pigmented areas. Median groove distinct from median eyes to posterior margins, with flanking elevations liberally set with coarse granules. Carapace of male with heavier, more conspicuous granules than that of female. Preabdomen: Traces of weakly granulated median keel on tergites I-VII still persistent. Tergites appearing quite smooth in both sexes but under low magnification seen to be finely granulose throughout; lateral and posterior margins lined with rounded granules; tergite VII with more numerous larger granules and additional heavily granulated lateral keel flanking indistinct median one. All sternites smooth. Stigmata short, elongated slits. Cauda: Dorsal and ventral surfaces of segments I-IV as shown in figures 16 and 17. Dorsal and superior lateral keels prominent, surmounted with rows of serrate to rounded granules of quite regular size, withoutnoticeable development of granules at end of each series. Inferior median keels essentially obsolete on segments I-III, but indicated by presence of diffuse, brown bands; these keels feebly represented on segment IV, but largely smooth. Inferior lateral keels weak and smooth on segments I-IV, also dusted to form bands. Inferior lateral keels of segment V serrate to granulate; single median keel with double line of granules; intercarinal spaces with numerous granules. Segment V somewhat longer than carapace in females, considerably longer in males. All segments with scattered setae, but those on ventral surface in regular rows on or near carinae; segments I-IV with 2-3-3-4 pairs of setae on obsolete, inferior median keels. Telson: See figure 31. Sting moderately curved, two-thirds as long as vesicle. Subaculear nodule inconspicuous. Vesicle about as wide as segment V of cauda. Pectines: Those of female (fig. 10) of average size, three times as long as breadth of much broader than long median piece; middle lamellae consisting of 15-20 small, round or ovoid pieces and second indistinct series of five to 10 in basal area; fulcra small, subtriangular or rounded pieces, one fewer than pectinal teeth; pectinal teeth of medium length and stoutness, 18-23 in number. Those of male (fig. 11) much larger; median piece as broad as long; middle lamellae consisting of about 30 small pieces in single row and additional ones in basal area; pectinal teeth varying from 25 to 31, about twice as long as those of female. Genital operculum: In female (fig. 10) consisting of two sclerotized, rounded valves separated by deep fissure but free only in posterior fourth. In male (fig. 11) valves narrower, more pointed behind, free for most of length; genital papillae two fleshy fingers, usually somewhat exposed. Chelicerae: Similar in both sexes, as illustrated in figures 46 to 48. Basal segment of median size, with thin brush of hairs on inner side near front edge above. Fixed finger with four stout teeth on upper margin of which basal pair forms compound tooth; lower margin essentially obsolete, usually bearing traces of two weak, dusky nodules or teeth. Movable finger with five strong teeth on upper (external) margin; lower margin with stout distal tooth, bearing distinct keel, with edge rarely smooth, usually variously dissected to form pale crenulations or more distinct, rounded, dark teeth. Distal teeth of both margins (fig. 47) subequal in size and length. Pedipalps: In both sexes short, with heavy hands and short fingers as shown in figures 24 and 25. Femur in lateral view two and one-half times as long as wide, with strongly angled carinae coarsely granulated. Tibia about twice as long as broad, inflated behind middle and produced below to sharp angle bearing two setae on heavy granules; all carinae well developed and coarsely granulated. Chela greatly incrassated, with following well-developed carinae: inner and outer carinae strongly developed and set with several rows of coarse granules; superior and inner accessory carinae of dorsal surface rounded and coarsely granulated but outer accessory carina shorter and less distinctly granulated; corresponding carinae of ventral surface all strongly developed and coarsely granulated. Inner keel of fixed finger scalloped as shown in figures, typically more so in male. Small granules on inner keel of fixed finger forming a quite regular, little-curved line, broken into six files by five large teeth and with six supernumerary teeth adjacent to them. Inner keel of movable finger similarly armed with six large teeth in file series and seven adjacent to them. Walking legs: All segments with few scattered setae. Protarsi with somewhat irregular series of long setae on dorsal surfaces."

Haradon 1985

"Diagnosis .—A species of subgenus Paruroctonus, boreus infragroup (cheliceral fixed digit with inferior carina extending proximally to level of bicusp; pectinal teeth 24-35 in males, 18-23 in females, pedipalp primary denticles, excluding proximal row, 37-52 on fixed finger, 44-68 on movable finger), and boreus microgroup (carapace length/cheliceral fixed digit length ratio 7 .0-9 .0; basitarsus II with mrs seta), differentiated by combination of: (1) pedipalp fingers in adult male deeply scalloped proximally, closed fingers form wide gap, in adult female weakly scalloped, closed fingers form a narrow proximal gap (see Gertsch and Soleglad 1966 :figs. 24, 25) ; (2) fuscous markings generally absent in interocular triangle and do not extend to posterior margin on tergites II-VI (see Gertsch and Soleglad 1966 :figs . 6, 8) ; (3) ventrolateral metasomal setae on IV 3, on V 6; (4) ventral metasomal setae I-IV 3,3,3,4; (5) dorsal metasomal setae I-IV 0,1,1,2; (6) ventrolateral metasomal carinae I-III smooth with few posterior crenulations; (7) ventral metasomal carinae I-III obsolete to smooth; (8) brachium with four long internal macro-setae (Fig. 2); (9) chelal palm macrosetae include two on internal carina (both long) and two on ventrointernal carina (proximal long, distal short) (Fig. 1)."

distribution:  NORTH AMERICA. Canada (Alberta, British Colombia, Saskatchewan), USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming). View Map

Haradon 1985 Western North America, from southern Canada to northern Arizona and to coastal mountains of southern California, essentially excluding northwest coastal region and the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts .

published records:  RECORDS: British Columbia: Keremeos, Okanagan District (Anderson, 1901); Vaseau Lake, Oliver, May 19, 1959 (R. E. Leech), female; Oliver, August 22 (E. R. Buckell), four specimens; May 20, 1953 (J. R. McGillis), male; Summerland, July 3-24, 1928 (T. B. Kurata, E. B. S. Logier), many specimens; west slope of Richter Pass, March 29, 1941 (H. B. Leech), female. Alberta: Medicine Hat (Chamberlin, 1924), June 6, 1936 (O. Bryant), female; June, 1923 J. M. Gouldie), one specimen; July 16, 1956 (O. Peck), two females; (J. M. Gouldie), three specimens (Kurata, 1930). Turner Valley, 35 miles southwest of Calgary, 1925 (G. Hume) (Kurata, 1930). Cypress Hills (R. Leech). Lethbridge (R. Leech). Little Sandhill, Red Deer (C. M. Sternberg), one specimen (Kurata, 1930). Near Iddlesleigh, Red Deer River, August 25, 1919 (V. R. Summerhayes), one specimen (Kurata, 1930). Washington: Kittitas County; Whiskey Dick Canyon, 5 miles north of Vantage, June, July, 1953 (R. Crabtree), two females. Oregon: Jefferson County: Willowdale, June 14, 1946 (B. Malkin, M. S. Sargent), immature male; 10 miles north of Hay Creek, June 15, 1946 (B. Malkin), female; Gateway, July 13, 1938 (Schuh and Gray), two females. Jackson County: Gold Hill (Webster. 1923). Baker County: Highway 86, 13 miles east of Baker, June 27, 1952 (B. Malkin), female; Sumpter, June 24, 1935 (D. Mote). Klamath County: Sprague River, near Bly, June 22, 1952 (B. Malkin), female. Lake County: Paisley, June 28-29, 1951 (B. Malkin), female; Fort Rock, July 9, 1953 (R. Lauderdale), female; Albert Lake; June 16, 1938 (Schuh and Gray), eight females, male, June 23, 1952 (B. Malkin), three females; Lakeview, June 27-28, 1951 (B. Malkin), female; Hart Mountain, June 17, 1938 (Schuh and Gray), female. Harney County: Harney Lake, Hot Springs, May 28, 1957 (B. Malkin), female. Malheur County: Harper, June 22, 1947 (B. Malkin), immature male. California: Siskiyou County: West side of Tule Lake, 9 miles southwest of Tulelake, August 15, 1965 (J. and W. Ivie), two females. Tulare County: Cedar Grove, King's Canyon National Park, July 5, 1956 (W. J. Gertsch, V. Roth), male. Contra Costa County: Mt. Diablo, May 7, 1945 (G. Linsley, R. F. Smith), male, two females. Idaho: Butte County: Craters of the Moon National Monument, July 2, 1952 (B. Malkin), female. Camas County: Soldier (Webster, 1923). Payette County: Payette, June 20, 1953 (W. Ivie), female. Montana: Carbon County: Como Tit, August 4, 1965 (P. Parks), male, female; Square Butte, March 7, 1922 (D. M. Thomas), female. Toole County: T. 35 N., R. 1 W., April, 1922, three specimens. Stillwater County: Sect. 21, T. 2 S., R. 20 E., 1 mile west of Columbus, (E. G. Robinson), one specimen. North Dakota: McKenzie County; Alexander (P. C. Arildson), December, 1921 (Webster, 1923), three specimens. Dunn County: Oakdale, spring, 1922 (Webster, 1923), one specimen. Golden Valley County: Trotters, November, 1922 (Webster, 1923), one specimen. Nevada: Nye County: Nevada test site, north of Mercury (Gertsch and Allred, 1965), many males and females; near Tonopah, 3000 feet, July 29, 1961 (F. E. Russell), male. Washoe County: Galena Creek, June 25, 1955 (M. A. Cazier), female; Reno, October 4, 1941 (I. La Rivers), male, four females. Mineral County: Thirteen miles east along Highway 31, from California-Nevada state line, August 19, 1959 (R. E. Graham), males, females; 15 miles northeast of Mina, June 11, 1960 (E. S. Ross), two immature females. Colorado: Mesa County: Palisade (L. Anderson), male, female. Montezuma County: Mesa Verde National Park, August 20, 1952 (B. Malkin), two males; Mesa Verde, July 23, 1941 (C. and M. Goodnight), male. Utah: Salt Lake County: Salt Lake (Webster, 1923), June 2, 1930 (J. Rowe), male, two females. Emery County: Green River, April 7, 1946 (G. F. Knowlton), two females; May 7, 1946 (G. F. Knowlton), female; 3 miles south of Green River, September 6, 1943 (H. E. Vokes), male, five females, Cache County: Blacksmith Fork Canyon, between Logan, Utah, and Preston, Idaho, July 9, 1935 (J. A. Rowe and C. F. Smith), female; Logan, August 26, 1936 (F. Harmston), female. Tooele County: Skull Valley, April 19, 1939 (G. F. Knowlton), female; Desert Range Research Station, September 9, 1950 (D. E. Beck), two females. Utah County: Four miles east of Provo. Uintah County: Ouray, female. Carbon County: Price, June 7, 1951 (D. E. Beck). Millard County: Scipio, April 16, 1935, female. Sevier County: Richfield, June 19, 1947 (D. E. Beck), female, May 15, 1940 (W. J. Gertsch), male, five females. Sevier Canyon, July 19, 1940 (W. J. Gertsch), female; 2 miles east of Glenwood, June 30, 1940 (W. J. Gertsch, L. Hook), immature female; Fish Lake, June 22, 1930 (W. J. Gertsch), male. Grand County: Arches National Monument, May 12, 1948 (D. Allred), female. Wayne County: Fruita, July 17, 1931 (W. J. Gertsch), two females. Wyoming: Sweetwater County: Green River, 6100 feet, July 2, 1920, male. Carbon County: Fort Steeb (Webster, 1923). Arizona: Coconino County: Grand Canyon (rim), 7000 feet, May 25, 1905 (W. M. Wheeler); Williams, May 25, July 9-15; Bright Angel, August 10; Wupatki National Monument, 7000 feet. Navajo County: Winslow, July 31. Yavapai County: Prescott, June 20, 1901.

Haradon 1985

Girard (1854) based his description of P. boreus on a single specimen, which was last reported to have been examined by Marx (1888). The 18 pectinal teeth reported by Girard (1854: 267, 268, fig . 6) indicate the original specimen to be a female.
Comparisons: P. silvestrii has (1) weakly scalloped pedipalp fingers in adult males and essentially unscalloped fingers in adult females ; P. silvestrii and P. arnaudi have (2 ) extensive fuscous markings in interocular triangle and extending to posterior margin on tergites II-VI (see Gertsch and Soleglad 1966: figs. 7, 9), (3) ventrolateral metasomal setae on IV 4, on V 7, and (4) ventral metasomal setae I-IV 3,4,4,5; P. bantai (see below) differs primarily in characters 5-9.
Remarks .—Paruroctonus boreus is the most widely mentioned Paruroctonus species in the technical and popular literature (often combined with Vaejovis or Vejovis), and the above synonymy includes only the first citation of each name, major taxonomic accounts, new synonyms and misidentifications . The bibliographic data given herein for Girard (1854), a report contained in a rare volume, corrects a recurring error that began with Wood (1863b :369).
The above diagnosis of P. boreus is based primarily on specimens from the Great Basin, including the Great Salt Lake Desert. The inter- and intrapopulation variability of many other characters in P. boreus is considerable, and still being studied. Examination of the holotype of the nominal species Paruroctonus auratus revealed no significant differences between it and the Great Salt Lake Desert (topotypic) population of P. boreus. The subtle differences in metasomal and telson proportions between P. auratus and P. boreus reported by Gertsch and Soleglad (1966: 45) were found to be insignificant using large samples of the latter species . As in certain other congeners (see Remarks to gracilior infragroup above), many arenicolous populations of P. boreus, including the topotypic populations of P. boreus and P. auratus, have essentially lost the basic fuscous pattern characteristic of this species (see Gertsch and Soleglad 1966 :figs . 6, 8), and simply represent pigmentation variants .


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