REVSYS: SYSTEMATICS OF THE
SCORPION FAMILY VAEJOVIDAE
HomeScorpionsVaejovidaeThe ProjectActivities/Products AcknowledgmentsLinks

FAMILY VAEJOVIDAEGenus ParavaejovisGenus ParuroctonusGenus PseudouroctonusGenus SerradigitusGenus SmeringerusGenus SyntropisGenus UroctonitesGenus UroctonusGenus Vaejovis

      eusthenura group
           Vaejovis bilineatus
           Vaejovis coahuilae
  
        Vaejovis confusus
   
       Vaejovis diazi diazi
    
      Vaejovis diazi transmontanus
   
       Vaejovis eusthenura
   
       Vaejovis flavus
    
      Vaejovis galbus
    
      Vaejovis glabrimanus
    
      Vaejovis globosus
   
       Vaejovis gravicaudus
  
        Vaejovis hoffmanni hoffmanni
   
       Vaejovis hoffmanni fuscus
    
      Vaejovis punctatus punctatus
   
       Vaejovis punctatus spadix
    
      Vaejovis punctatus variegatus
   
       Vaejovis puritanus
    
      Vaejovis spinigerus
   
       Vaejovis viscainensis
  
        Vaejovis vittatus
  
        Vaejovis waeringi
   
       Vaejovis waueri
      intrepidus group
  
        Vaejovis intrepidus intrepidus
  
        Vaejovis intrepidus atrox
  
        Vaejovis intrepidus cristimanus
    
      Vaejovis occidentalis
    
      Vaejovis subcristatus
      mexicanus group
  
        Vaejovis carolinianus
  
        Vaejovis cashi
  
        Vaejovis chamelaensis
    
      Vaejovis chiapas
   
       Vaejovis chisos
  
        Vaejovis deboersi
  
        Vaejovis dugesi
  
        Vaejovis feti
  
        Vaejovis franckei
   
       Vaejovis granulatus
    
      Vaejovis jonesi
   
       Vaejovis lapidicola
    
      Vaejovis maculosus
   
       Vaejovis mexicanus mexicanus
    
      Vaejovis mexicanus smithi
    
      Vaejovis monticola
    
      Vaejovis nigrofemoratus
  
        Vaejovis pattersoni
   
       Vaejovis paysonensis
    
      Vaejovis pusillus
   
       Vaevovis rosssmanni
    
      Vaejovis setosus
    
      Vaejovis sprousei
    
      Vaejovis tesselatus
    
      Vaejovis vaquero
  
        Vaejovis vorhiesi
      nitidulus group    
    
      Vaejovis curvidigitus
    
      Vaejovis davidi
    
      Vaejovis decipiens
    
      Vaejovis gracilis
    
      Vaejovis intermedius
    
      Vaejovis janssi
    
      Vaejovis kochi
    
      Vaejovis mauryi
    
      Vaejovis minckleyi
    
      Vaejovis mitchelli
    
      Vaejovis nigrescens
    
      Vaejovis nitidulus
    
      Vaejovis norteno
    
      Vaejovis peninsularis
    
      Vaejovis platnicki
    
      Vaejovis pococki
    
      Vaejovis rubrimanus
    
      Vaejovis solegladi
      punctipalpi group
    
      Vaejovis bruneus bruneus
    
      Vaejovis bruneus loretoensis
    
      Vaejovis bruneus villosus
    
      Vaejovis cazieri
    
      Vaejovis crassimanus
    
      Vaejovis hirsuticauda
    
      Vaejovis insularis
    
      Vaejovis magdalensis
    
      Vaejovis punctipalpi punctipalpi
    
      Vaejovis punctipalpi barbatus
    
      Vaejovis punctipalpi cerralvensis
    
      Vaejovis russelli
    
      Vaejovis sonorae
      incertae sedis
    
      Vaejovis acapulco
    
      Vaejovis cisnerosi
           Vaejovis kuarapu
    
      Vaejovis mumai
    
      Vaejovis nayarit
    
      Vaejovis pequeno
    
      Vaejovis spicatus
    
      Vaejovis zihuatanejensis
          "Vaejovis" flavescens

Genus Vejovoidus

Catalog of the VaejovidaeVaejovid  Bibliography

Why Study the Vaejovidae?

Genus Vaejovis C. L. Koch 1836 

 

Synonymy

Vaejovis C. L. Koch, 1836: 51; type species by monotypyVaejovis mexicanus C. L. Koch, 1836. 

SYNONYMS:

Parabroteas Penther, 1913: 244-245, fig. 5; type species by monotypy Parabroteas montezuma Penther, 1913; a junior homonym of Parabroteas Mrázek, 1902, (Crustacea) (synonymized by Soleglad, 1976b: 299).

Pentheria Francke, 1985: 3, 11, 16, 19; type species Parabrotheas montezuma Penther, 1913; a replacement name for Parabroteas Penther, 1913 (synonymized by Sissom, 2000: 529; see NOTES).

Lissovaejovis Ponce Saavedra & Beutelspacher, 2001: 88, 98.  Type species not designated.  See NOTES below.

Sissomius Ponce Saavedra & Beutelspacher, 2001: 88, 99.  Type species not designated.  See NOTES below.

REFERENCES:

Vejovis (ISS): Thorell, 1876a: 10; Kraepelin, 1894: 182, 198; Laurie, 1896b: 187, 189, 193; Lauire, 1896a: 130; Kraepelin, 1899: 183; Comstock, 1912: 31; Birula, 1917a: 163; Pavlovsky, 1924: 80; Hoffmann, 1931: 346; Werner, 1934: 282; Kästner, 1941: 273; Gertsch & Allred, 1965: 3-4 (part); Gertsch & Soleglad, 1966: 3-4 (part); Bücherl, 1964: 61 (part); Bücherl, 1971: 328 (part); Gertsch & Soleglad, 1972: 553, 557, 559, 564, 593 (part); Soleglad, 1972b: 179-180 (part); Soleglad, 1973b: 351-360 (part); Stahnke, 1974a: 132-136, fig. 9C, 9D (part).

Vaejovis: Pocock, 1902: 8; Ewing, 1928: 7, 9-10; Hjelle, 1972: 20 (part); Vachon, 1974: 914, 916; Williams, 1974: 15 (part); Williams, 1980: 48-55, fig. 51-57 (part); Sissom, 1989a: 132; Sissom, 1990a: 110, 114; Sissom, 1991b: 4, 26-27; Sissom, 1991a: 215-216; Sissom & Stockwell, 1991: 199; Williams & Savary, 1991: 284; Nenilin & Fet, 1992: 9, 10; Kovarík, 1998: 146; Beutelspacher, 2000: 56, 73, 152, Plate 12 (part), Plate 13 (part) ; Sissom, 2000:529-530; Ponce Saavedra & Beutelspacher, 2001: 71; Soleglad & Fet, 2003a: 15, 28, 36, 67, 103, 109, 163, 164, figs. 66, 79, 80, D-2, D-4, Tab. 9.

Parabroteas: Birula, 1917a: 163; Birula, 1917b: 139-140; Werner, 1934: 286, 287; Kästner, 1941: 235; Bücherl, 1971: 329; Soleglad, 1976b: 299; Francke, 1985: 20.

Pentheria: Stockwell, 1992: 411; Kovarík, 1998: 128.

Description.

Prosoma. –  Anterior carapacial margin broadly V-shaped to essentially straight, with a subtle median indentation.

Mesosoma. – Pectinal tooth counts 11-32 in males, 10-29 in females.  All female pectinal teeth similar in size and shape, and with sensorial areas.

Metasoma. –  Dorsal carinae of segments I-IV with weak to strong angular termination, sometimes with the distalmost denticle enlarged, subspinoid.  Ventral submedian carinae of segments I-IV paired and variously developed, ranging from absent on all segments to granular to denticulate (strength and granulation usually increasing posteriorly).  Segment V with linear ventromedian carina (i.e., not bifurcated distally).

Chelicerae. –  Ventral margin of the cheliceral movable finger with or without denticles or crenulations; fixed finger lacking ventral denticles, except in a few species.  Serrula reduced to well developed distoventrally on movable finger.

Pedipalps. – Patella:  Inner face with basal tubercles moderately developed; inner longitudinal carina present in most species.  Chelal carinae:  Carinal development variable, some with all carinae developed and granular to denticulate, others with various carinae reduced, still others with all carinae absent.  Undersurface of chela more or less rounded.   Chela dentition: Terminal denticles not prominent, conically shaped.  Chela fixed finger with primary denticle row divided into five to six subrows of denticles, these are flanked by four to six (usually six) inner accessory denticles.   Chela movable finger with primary denticle row divided into five to seven subrows of denticles, these flanked by four to eight (usually six or seven) inner accessory denticles. Denticles of denticle row variable, subconical to peglike, rounded to subserrate.

Trichobothrial Pattern. Patella with two ventral trichobothria along ventroexternal carina (the third ventral trichobothrium is positioned on the external face). Chela with four ventral (V) trichobothria..  Chelal trichobothrium ib positioned on the fixed finger, either at the base or displaced distally to near the level of the sixth inner accessory denticle of the finger dentate margin.  Chela finger trichobothrium est about equidistant between et and esb.

Legs. –  Basitarsi and telotarsi in most species without setal combs (a few species, or populations of species, may have setal combs, but these are unlike those of Paruroctonus.  Telotarsi ventrally with a median row of small spinules that are flanked distally by one or more pairs of slightly larger spinules.  Ventromedian spinule row flanked laterally by setae.

Hemispermatophore. – Mating plug present or absent.  Lamellar hook variable.

Included Groups. –  eusthenura, intrepidus, mexicanus, nitidulus, punctipalpi.

Species not placed in species groups: V. spicatus Haradon, 1974; V. mumai Sissom, 1993; V. pequeno Hendrixson, 2001; V. acapulco Armas & Eliezer Martín, 2001;V. nayaritArmas & Eliezer Martín, 2001;  V. cisnerosi Ponce Saavedra & Sissom, 2004; V. kuarapuFrancke & Ponce Saavedra, 2006.

Similar taxa. See other genera, as indicated in the "species groups" descriptions.

Remarks. - Comprising 74 species and 10 subspecies, Vaejovis is the largest genus of North American scorpions and third largest scorpion genus in the world (after the buthid genus Tityus and the scorpionid genus Opistophthalmus). It includes a diverse assemblage of fossorial, psammophilous, lithophilous and troglobitic species found in equally diverse habitats. However, it is neither monophyletic (Stockwell 1989; Sissom 1985) nor do any modern keys cover its component species. Most older keys are outdated, an exception being that for species in Baja California (Williams 1980). Five species groups (theeusthenura group,intrepidus group, mexicanus group, nitidulus group, and punctipalpi group) are recognized, but it is unclear which, if any, are monophyletic (the mexicanus group is probably not) and several species cannot be assigned to any of the above groups (see Catalog).Several other vaejovid genera were at one time recognized as species groups within Vaejovis: Serradigitus,Paruroctonus, andPseudouroctonus

Literature Cited:

Hendrixson, B.E. 2001. A new species of Vaejovis (Scorpiones, Vaejovidae) from Sonora, México. Journal of Arachnology 29: 47–55.

Sissom, W.D. 1985. Systematics of the nitidulus group of the genus Vaejovis, with comments on phylogenetic relationships within the family Vaejovidae (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Ph.D. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University.

Sissom, W.D. 1993. A new species of Vaejovis (Scorpines, Vaejovidae) from western Arizona, with supplemental NOTES on the male of Vaejovis spicatus Haradon. Journal of Arachnology 21: 64–68.

Sissom, W.D. & Francke, O.F. 1985. Redescriptions of some poorly known species of the nitidulus group of the genus Vaejovis (Scorpiones, Vaejovidae). Journal of Arachnology 13: 243–266.

Stockwell, S.A. 1989. Revision of the phylogeny and higher classification of scorpions (Chelicerata). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Williams, S.C. 1980. Scorpions of Baja California, México, and adjacent islands. Occasional Papers of the Califorinia Academy of Sciences 135: 1–127.

 

 


The material included in this site is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0413453.  Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
THE UNAUTHORIZED COPYING, DISPLAYING OR OTHER USE OF PHOTOGRAPHS OR OTHER CONTENT  FROM THIS SITE IS A ILLLEGAL. 
© Copyright 2005-2006.  All images in this site, even if they do not include an individual statement of copyright, are protected under the U. S. Copyright Act.  They may not be "borrowed" or otherwise used without our express permission or the express permission of the photographer(s),  artist(s), or author(s).  For permission, please submit your request to wsavary@yahoo.com.